The family Pneumoviridae comprises large enveloped negative-sense RNA viruses. This taxon was formerly a subfamily within the Paramyxoviridae, but was reclassified in 2016 as a family with two genera, Orthopneumovirus and Metapneumovirus. Pneumoviruses infect a range of mammalian species, while some members of the Metapneumovirus genus may also infect birds. Some viruses are specific and pathogenic for humans, such as human respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus. There are no known vectors for pneumoviruses and transmission is thought to be primarily by aerosol droplets and contact. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of the Pneumoviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/pneumoviridae.
The Nyamiviridae is a family of viruses with unsegmented, negative-sense RNA genomes of 11.3–12.2 kb that produce enveloped, spherical virions. Viruses of the genus Nyavirus are tick-borne and some also infect birds. Other nyamiviruses infecting parasitoid wasps and plant parasitic nematodes have been classified into the genera Peropuvirus and Socyvirus, respectively. This is a summary of the current International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of Nyamiviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/nyamiviridae.
Members of the family Pleolipoviridae (termed pleolipoviruses) are pseudo-spherical and pleomorphic archaeal viruses. The enveloped virion is a simple membrane vesicle, which encloses different types of DNA genomes of approximately 7–16 kbp (or kilonucleotides). Typically, virions contain a single type of transmembrane (spike) protein at the envelope and a single type of membrane protein, which is embedded in the envelope and located in the internal side of the membrane. All viruses infect extremely halophilic archaea in the class Halobacteria (phylum Euryarchaeota). Pleolipoviruses have a narrow host range and a persistent, non-lytic life cycle. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of the Pleolipoviridae which is available at www.ictv.global/report/pleolipoviridae.